Sir James Dyson - Lessons on Grit, Leadership & Pandemic Innovations

After five years of testing, Sir James Dyson invented the world’s first bagless vacuum cleaner. It took 5,127 prototypes. His £14.5 billion company, Dyson, has since developed countless products, including hairdryers and purifying systems.


Image of Sir James Dyson by sketches of his designs (hairdryer and hoover) with image of the brand logo and title of the blog
Sir James Dyson - Lessons on Grit, Leadership & Pandemic Innovations

More products are on the way. According to The Times, he’s set to throw £2.75 billion at robotics, artificial intelligence, and other new technologies over the next five years as he doubles the company’s range.


A willingness to adapt is one of many leadership lessons we can take from the English inventor. There are plenty more throughout his story.


Innovation is in keeping with what has made Dyson so successful. Working alongside 6,000 engineers and scientists, he develops products to solve problems ignored by others.


At school, Sir James studied Latin and Greek, along with art. It was the latter he enjoyed most. He went to art school and stumbled into design.


“… I managed to get into the Royal College of Art to study furniture design. I switched to architecture because I thought it was more exciting and more intellectually challenging… That’s how I came to meet the chairman of an engineering company. And that’s what really turned me into an amateur engineer.

- Sir James Dyson


He looked at problems and tinkered with products. This led to the vacuum cleaner. Like others before, he realised vacuums with bags lost suction after a few uses, but he didn’t stop there. He turned to cyclones.


“I got my old maths teacher to help me with the maths to work out the formulae. I went through all five of the serious formulae, and I got five different answers. I thought, ‘This is no use. I’ve got to do this empirically. I’ve got to develop this myself.’
“So I started the process of developing a cyclone that would work down to half a micron or less. And that took 5,126 prototype failures before I got the 5,127th, which worked.

- Sir James Dyson


He only made one change at a time. He understood that if he tried to take shortcuts, it wouldn’t work. He’d know its performance, but he wouldn’t know why.


“It’s not about being brilliant - it’s about being logical and persistent… You have to start right at the beginning with the most basic, simple thing, and then make one change to see what effect that has.”

- Sir James Dyson


Marginal improvements is a culture Dyson has fostered within his company. He recognises progress doesn’t come from huge strides. It’s incremental. Only at the end does it look like a giant leap.


The testing fascinated him. Every night for three years, he came home to his wife, covered in dust.

They got into debt. At one point, Sir James put their house on the line. He could see he was making progress, though, and he was convinced people would buy his vacuum. This was despite the fact he hadn’t conducted market research.


He spent another six years trying to license the technology. Everyone turned him down. One of the main reasons was because vacuum manufacturers sold a lot of vacuum bags, and these made them money. They weren’t interested in changing their technology.


But Sir James didn’t stop there. He manufactured the products himself and followed his instincts. His grit shone through once again.


“I had no idea whether anyone wanted to buy this product.”